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Metal Welding Technology Using Lasers

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Laser beam welding is a welding technique used to join multiple pieces of metal through the
use of a laser. The beam provides a concentrated heat source, allowing for narrow, deep welds
and high welding rates. The process is frequently used in high volume applications, such as in
the automotive industry. Similar to electron beam welding (EBW), laser beam welding has a
high power density (on the order of 1 MW/cm2) resulting in small heat-affected zones and
high heating and cooling rates. The spot size of the laser can vary from 0.2 mm to dozens of
millimeters, even though the spot size of the laser between 0.4 mm and 0.6 mm are usually
used for metal welding. The depth of penetration is proportional to the amount of power
supplied, but it is also dependent on the location of the focal point: penetration is maximized
when the focal point is slightly below the surface of the workpiece.

A CW or pulse laser beam may be used depending on the application. Millisecond-long pulses
are used to weld thin materials such as razor blades while CW laser systems are employed for
deep welds. LBW is a versatile process, capable of welding carbon steels, HSLA steels, stainless
steel, aluminum, and titanium. Due to high cooling rates, cracking is a concern when welding
high-carbon steels. The weld quality is high, similar to that of electron beam welding. The
speed of welding is proportional to the amount of power supplied, but it also depends on the
type and thickness of the workpieces.

Pros

  • Increase productivity with high welding speed
  • Good welding seam
  • Minimizes deformation of the product with low heat input
  • 2-D/3-D products can be welded

Applications of laser metal welding

  • Precision spot welding
  • Heat conduction welding
  • Parts that require high watertightness
  • Industrial sectors that set a high value on exterior quality

[Application cases of laser metal welding]

Application cases of laser metal welding

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